"The mind is a compact, multiply connected thought mass with internal connections of the most intimate kind. It grows continuously as new thought masses enter it, and this is the means by which it continues to develop."

Bernhard Riemann On Psychology and Metaphysics ca. 1860

"It is clear that the minds are the most important part of the universe, and that everything was established for their sake; that is, in choosing the order of things, the greatest account was taken of them; all things being arranged in such a way that they appear the more beautiful the more they are understood."

G. W. Leibniz

Today's Elites

Friday, May 14, 2010

Random Noise or Crosstalk? God Still Doesn't Shoot Pool.

Here is an elegant insight that solves the apparent noise of random stochastics of pure chance at the biological signalling domain. Bravo!

Decision Making at a Subcellular Level Determines the Outcome of Bacteriophage Infection

    • Graphical Abstract
  • Highlights
  • Each infecting λ phage makes an independent choice between lysis and lysogeny
  • Cell lysogeny is pursued only if all infecting phages choose that fate
  • The observed single-cell phenotype is much noisier than that of the single phage
  • Summary
  • When the process of cell-fate determination is examined at single-cell resolution, it is often observed that individual cells undergo different fates even when subject to identical conditions. This “noisy” phenotype is usually attributed to the inherent stochasticity of chemical reactions in the cell. Here we demonstrate how the observed single-cell heterogeneity can be explained by a cascade of decisions occurring at the subcellular level. We follow the postinfection decision in bacteriophage lambda at single-virus resolution, and show that a choice between lysis and lysogeny is first made at the level of the individual virus. The decisions by all viruses infecting a single cell are then integrated in a precise (noise-free) way, such that only a unanimous vote by all viruses leads to the establishment of lysogeny. By detecting and integrating over the subcellular “hidden variables,” we are able to predict the level of noise measured at the single-cell level.

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